A Quick Interlude With Wannacry
Wannacry affected a lot of people. Almost every country on the planet was affected with over 300,000 machines compromised. It took hours for developers to create variants as soon as the original infection began to appear. The update that resolved this issue is located here.
A breakdown of the attack is available from zerosum. I will summarize the event as so.
Microsoft had an exploit available in their SMB protocol since WindowsXP days.
Find out if the computer is x86 or x64.
Locate the .exe DOS MZ header.
Begin the process of allocating memory.
Find the SMB driver.
Allocate memory and copy code for the function hook. It stores a function pointer and then calls it and overwrites a member table with the hook. This creates a backdoor.
It then uses invalid SMB calls to ‘knock’ when it needs access. You can send shellcode in a payload packet in increments of 4096 bytes. The backdoor allocates executable memory, decrypts shellcode, and then runs it.
At the conclusion of the course the student will be able to:
- Identify what PGP is.
- Identify the use of a PGP Public Key.
- Identify the use of a PGP Private Key.
- Understand what encryption is.
- Understand when to sign communication.
- Understand what threats prey on trust issues.
Privacy is the buzz word of the day. There is a dire concern that every person on the planet is being surveilled in perpetuum. Businesses, classrooms, and our private lives are at constant risk of exposure to enemies both foreign and domestic. Members of the media have decried encryption, privacy, and personal freedom in the hopes of encouraging members of the public to give up their freedoms in exchange for an illusion of safety. What can we do to ensure our personal safety in an age of always on connections, constant monitoring, and the potential for a major cyber terrorism event looming over us like a poisonous cloud?
Children are being targeted by advertisers for their personally identifiable information. There are children toys being sold that ask kids for information like who their family members are, what they like to do, and where they live. They also provide their ‘opinion’ on how the child should feel about specific brands and companies.
In addition to conducting intelligence gathering and analysis on the children in question, companies like the one in the article referenced are employing voice and biometric screening tools (PDF used without permission for educational purposes only) which double as counter terrorism and investigation software to monitor the inputs of the child.
The toys used by the children lack basic security and allow a connection by Bluetooth with no authentication or password necessary. The toys also provide two way communication as well as function as a covert listening device. It is possible to make a connection and record conversations or communicate at will.
Adults are being targeted by tools like Weeping Angel. The NSA was recently attacked and many of their tools have been released onto the internet. Of note was the Weeping Angel attack. This attack allows individuals to compromise a specific model of smart television in order to use it as a covert spying and listening device. These tools are now being used to attack the public by bad actors. We will continue to see attacks like WannaCry employing NSA tools and methods.
Everything is on fire.
Loose Lips Sink Ships
Stop telling people every thing about yourself.
The Republic Of 4Chan(Potentially Offensive Material)
The Republic Of 4Chan(Potentially Offensive Material)
You should only communicate with sites secured by SSL. SSL provides encryption for your connection and protects user names, passwords, and other digital information that is being transferred between your computer and the internet. It does not however provide proof of data assurance and cannot prove that the data is truthful. It is only good for providing a layer of encryption over the data.
Fake SSL Certificates that are trusted have been deployed over the internet for domains like Google as well as others. Symantec issued over 30,000 certificates improperly. This mishandling of SSL lead to companies like Google restricting their use on their Chrome browser.
SSL is proof of encryption. It is not proof of ownership nor is it an assurance that the content is real or truthful. It is solely proof of encryption and should be treated as such. Even people who are hostile to you and yours can use encrypted communications.
Linux Mint was compromised and proved that it is entirely possible for a determined attacker to completely take over a website, Linux distribution, and even the tools used to assure the quality of the download.
Separation of failure is vital for situations where an individual could compromise a single point of failure and then build a complete attack from that weakness. It is a cascading failure that a compromised website gave the user the ability to upload an ISO, edit the page to display a different signature, and then distribute the infected software.
The Linux Mint community has since changed their security practices and now provide a very thorough if not a bit complicated method to verify the integrity of their distribution.
How to verify a file
The first thing we need to do is verify the gpg key used to sign the authenticity of the sha256 at the key server. Keys are hosted by Ubuntu and can be verified with a little bit of work.
Download the sha256sum.txt file
Download the signature for the sha file.
Get the sha with sha256sum -b *.iso
gpg --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-key "27DE B156 44C6 B3CF 3BD7 D291 300F 846B A25B AE09"
gpg --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-key A25BAE09
gpg --list-key --with-fingerprint A25BAE09
gpg --verify sha256sum.txt.gpg sha256sum.txtverify key used was A25BAE09
Other key servers exist in the world. A short list can be found below.
No one on the internet knows you are a dog
Privacy means that we are free of being observed or disturbed unless we choose to be. If you do not tell people information about yourself, it is very difficult for people to discover things about you. Websites do exist that provide detailed information about people through public record and eventually this data will need to be better managed. I estimate that within the next five years we will see laws put into place to curtail the availability of public records over the internet or in some way curb these data warehouses that publish private information online.
Even though we have the capability to be extremely anonymous on the internet, sometimes we need the opposite of that behavior. It can be important for a user to be easily identifiable and that is where proof can be required.
GPG / PGP as a service.
Keybase provides powerful cryptography for every one and not just for hardcore programmers. You can use their website or their mobile applications in order to prove your ownership of specific products or to sign and encrypt communications. As of 05-21-2017, the Keybase website requires an invitation for access. You can contact users like myself over Mastodon or other social media for access to this project.
GPG - Build Our Key
How to generate -
$ gpg --gen-key
How to generate the revocation certificate -
$ gpg --gen-revoke [ID_OF_KEY] > ~/.gnupg/revocation-[ID_OF_KEY].crt
How to send your key to a public server -
$ gpg --keyserver pool.sks-keyservers.net --send-key 'THE FULL KEY ID'
How to backup your keys -
$ tar -zcvf gnukeys.tar.gz .gnupg/
Then just save the created file somewhere secure.
There are an innumerable number of threats that could be employed to steal from both individual as well as business. Some of these threats include whale phishing as well as fraud. We will discuss them both as well as some of the incidents that have proven their effectiveness in the arsenal of the threat actor.
A specific form of phishing that targets high-profile individuals is called whaling. This scam is usually detailed, well planned, and executed for the sole purpose of causing someone with power to divulge secrets or provide money. This type of attack usually focuses on a call to action with urgency. An example may look like the following.
Retro64XYZ! The business is at risk because we forgot to pay our bill to NigerianSuperConducters LLC. I know we usually pay them bi-weekly but the bank forgot to clear one of our checks and now we owe a double payment. Can you please send a payment of $1,800,000 to NigerianSuperBank, account number 12345, routing number 54321? If we don’t pay it, they will stop making the chips we need and the whole business will go bust. Hurry! Also, don’t call me because I am obviously on vacation in Idaho where I go all the time because that is where my mom lives and you know that because it is information you could find on my Facebook. Pay quick!
This is a silly example but it covers many bases you may see in a real whaling email. There is a sense of urgency due to the possibility of the business going bust. Do YOU want to be responsible for destroying the business? Obviously not. There is a quick explanation of the problem, a method of resolution, and an excuse for why you should do this thing now and not worry about verifying the information in the email. The template is simplistic but with a bit more detail could easily convince someone. This holds doubly true if the individual has ever had previous problems with the bank or distributor before. Not unheard of.
Another method of fraud is the ever popular ‘invoice’ scam. This one is usually targeted at companies or institutions and designed to attack the petty cash type accounts. The fraudster will create an invoice for a service or purchase and then send this invoice out to a large number of companies. The cost presented will normally be something affordable and within budget. A $250 fee for software or technical services is a popular one. Although, larger targets may require higher invoice costs.
Facebook and Google were swindled out of $100 million dollars. An individual forged emails, invoices, and logos and then began the process of charging companies like Facebook and Google for fraudulent transfers. He spent two years earning over $100 million dollars from his efforts before the companies realized what was happening. This type of attack, also known as a B2B or Business To Business attack, is extremely common place and has been used against a multitude of victims.
GPG - Encrypt With Our Key
You may want to refer to the Debian GPG Guide for further information.
PGP is an internet standard for encrypting and digitally signing communication.
A public key is used to encrypt data. It is safe to give this key away.
A private key is used to decrypt data. It is not safe to give this key away.
Encryption is the process of encoding data to prevent unauthorized access.
Sign digital communications any time you need to impart trust in the origin of the data.
Phishing, Whale Phishing, and Fraud are all attacks that require a degree of trust to be effective.
Privacy, Anonymity, and Authorship Assurance are all important aspects and deserve equal focus by both the security community as well as the public. It is imperative that the next generation of security researchers be able to not just move in secrecy but provide proof of self. We cannot become so engrossed in the ‘secret squirrel’ stuff that we forget the practical and useful.
Some of the largest companies in the world have been victims of fraud, B2B attacks, and other threats. No one is immune from these incidents but training and experience are excellent tools in better protecting your business or operations from threats.
How to check if two files are the same -
diff file1 file2
You will find a link to two images below. They appear to be the same. Using the skills you learned today, diff them with sha256sum. Are they different?
Find the hidden difference between the files.
Reveal the hidden message.
VIM - Delimiter - SECRET
base64 -d (-D on mac)
echo 'message minus SECRET' | base64 -d
Use the secret to solve the puzzle.
Register a PGP key. Use Keybase if you are uncomfortable managing it yourself.
Familiarize yourself with scams.
Create a plan for dealing with emergencies. Who to contact to verify incidents?
Encourage the use of cryptography and digital signing in business.
PGP - Pretty Good Privacy provides cryptograhic privacy and authentication.
GnuPG - Is a complete and free implementation of OpenPGP.
Gpg4win - Is a PGP tool implementation for Windows.
Key Server - A computer that receives and serves cryptograhic keys to users and programs.